Energy system externalities, South Africa

As part of the Energy pathways to 2050 project, Vivid Economics provided analysis on energy system externalities in South Africa and international experience in pricing them. For South Africa, the private and external costs of electricity generation technologies, types of fuel used by households and modes of transport were estimated to show which options had the lowest social costs. International experience of pricing externalities was then considered to provide lessons on how South Africa could internalise the energy system externalities.